What is Vortex Flow Meter and how it works?

What is Vortex Flow Meter?

The term “Vortex Flow Meter” refers to a device that is used for measuring flow in those situations where problems are created when moveable components are introduced. These are available in the form of plastic, brass or other industrial level construction. There is low sensitivity to differences in the process conditions. As these have no moving components, there is comparatively reduced wear and tear when compared to flow meters of other types. These types of meters are used to measure the flow of gas and liquid, as well as of steam.

What is the Principle of Operation?

These types of flow meters use a principle known as the von Kármán effect. As per this precept, while moving by a bluff body vortices will be generated alternately by flow. A bluff body consists of a flat, broad front. The bluff body, in a vortex meter, is a strip of material having such a front that vertically projects into the flow stream. The velocity of the flow is directly proportional to the vortices’ frequency. The flow rate is calculated through multiplication of the flow velocity to the pipe area.

Vortex meters, in a few cases, need straight upstream piping or straightening vanes to be used in order to eliminate the distortion of swirl and flow patterns. For these types of meters, low flow rates happen to be an issue, as these irregularly produce vortices when the flow is low. The meters’ accuracy ranges medium – high, based on the manufacturer and model.

How Does It Work?

The vortex flow meter has to work properly, and for that it has to be fixed in the proper direction. This is known as the ‘Shedding Principle’ in Physics, and it requires that the meter has to be placed in the flow direction.

There has to be pressure so that the Vortex flow meter can function properly. It makes it more convenient for the fluid to go downstream, as the case is while dealing with matter that flows down rivers. The meter will cease to function and will remain static in case of no direction or pressure. It is essential to know about proper frequencies that are adjusted in order to make the meter function properly. For the process to begin, you will notice that the vortices’ frequencies are generally placed in a direction that is directly proportional to the meter’s flow.

If the Vortex flow meter has to easily operate, it is recommended that you purchase strong materials give that it will determine the direction and pressure of the meter. You will notice that the whole flow will not be channeled by broken pipes, and this will lead to issues with the pressure. It is important to pick thermoplastic piping solutions, as these have appropriate pressure, the right temperature of accurate flow of direction and the media of flow. You have to also check more while dealing with matters related to corrosion and chemical transportation, given that these are obstructions in the ability of the flow to get a direction.

What is Water flow meter and how it works?

What is Water flow meter

A water flow meter is nothing but a device that can measure how much water is flowing through a pipe. Various types of water flow meters are available for you to choose from, based on the maintenance requirements, budget and water measurement applications. Each kind of water flow meter has a singular operational principle, individual application advantages and overall ownership cost. Find out about how the different types of water flow meters work.

Mechanical Flow Meters

These are the commonest and most affordable form of water flow meter that measures flow via rotation of turbine with a paddle wheel, propeller or shunt design. These meters operate by measuring how fast water flows through a pipe that makes a turbine or piston rotate. The blades’ rotational speed is proportional to the volumetric flow rate of water.

Vortex Flow Meters

These make use of vortices that are shed from a sensor that is absorbed in the flow. Vortices are actually swirls that are generated when a fluid goes past an impediment, such as water that flows around a stone or a wind moves past a flagpole. A sensor tab, in this type of meter, flexes sideways when every vortex tends to flow past and lead to a frequency output which is proportional directly to the volumetric flow rate.

Ultrasonic Flow Meter

These can measure the pace of fluid moving through the pipe and making volumetric flow measurement with the help of ultrasound. An ultrasonic signal is transmitted in a transit-time styled meter like this in the direction of the fluid flowing upstream, and another signal that is sent against the fluid flowing upstream. In its simplest form, the time taken by the sonic pulse to move downstream is compared with the time that the pulse takes to move upstream. The speed of the flowing fluid is measured with the help of this differential time. The meter then calculates the pipe’s volumetric flow rate with this fluid velocity.

Magnetic Flow Meter

These kinds of meters can measure the pace of fluid moving through a pipe with the help of a magnetic field that is used for volumetric flow measurement. The working of these meters is based on Law of Electromagnetic Induction of Faraday, which states that voltage is generated by liquid while passing through a magnetic field. The faster the flow of fluid is, the higher the voltage that is produced. The voltage that is generated is directly proportional to the movement o water. The electronics processes the voltage signal into the volumetric flow rate. However, these kinds of meters never exhibit an intermediate accuracy which makes them improper to be used for custody transfer.

Which kind of water flow meter should be used is based on the particular application. For example, some types of flow meters perform better while measuring various things. You need to watch videos, go through white papers and make use of selection tools for detecting which is the best Sierra flow measurement product for water and liquid flow application.

What is Turbine Flow Meter and How It Works?

What is Turbine Flow Meter?

Turbine flow meters are a great way to measure the flow of natural gas and liquid. It is also referred to as an ‘Axial turbine’, and comprises of a turbine wheel put in the flow stream. The angled blades of the meter are pushed by the flow, which causes the rotation of the turbine. The flow rate can be gauged on the basis of the rate of rotation of the turbine when it gets steady. The rotation rate is generally picked up by the electronic coils which are connected to the housing of the meter, and finally transformed into readings that are obtained by users.

How Does It Work?

The meter comprises of a multi-bladed rotor that is mounted at an angle of 90° to the flow. It is suspended on a freely running bearing in the stream of the flow. The rotor’s diameter is a little less as compared to the metering chamber’s inner diameter, and the rotational speed is directly proportional to its volumetric rate of flow.

The rotor rotates as the fluid flows through the turbine meter. In case the impact of friction is not given importance, the rotor of the turbine will revolve at a speed that is proportional directly to the flowing fluid’s velocity.

There is an electrical pickup of the turbine meter, which can detect the rotor’s rotation and then changes the turbine rotor’s speed into pulses. The volume is proportional to the exact number of such pulses and the flow rate is also proportional to the pulse frequency.

How Do Various Turbine Flow Meters Work?

  • Single Jet – These have a set of blades that are directly set in the way of a jet or stream of water in a pipe. The jet or stream is created with the help of an orifice.
  • Multi-jet – These have the same working principle as the above flow meters. Water is directed onto blades from multiple orifices, in order to ensure their rotation around an axis in the middle. Both single jet and multi jet meters are used primarily for the purpose of billing in commercial and residential water supply operations.
  • Pelton Wheel – These have buckets connected to the outer side of the wheel. The wheel begins to rotate when liquid or waters hits the buckets. The setup of these flow meters is similar although in a frame that is more compact. It is used for the measurement of the flow of liquids of low viscosity that happen to flow at a slow rate.
  • Paddle Wheel – These consist of shafts positioned at an angle of 90° to the stream flow. It has a lightweight paddle wheel with shafts attached to it. As the shafts are moved by the flow, the wheel rotates. The paddle wheel rotational speed is proportional to the liquid flow speed.
  • Propeller – These types of flowmeters have 3 – 6 blades and are similar in appearance to wood propellers that can be found in boats. These have blades fixed around an axis in the middle, which rotate around the axis.

What is Coriolis Flow Meter and how it works?

What is Coriolis Flow Meter?

These days, most of the flow meters that are used happen to be volumetric. But a mass flow meter is needed in a few other applications, and a Coriolis flow meter is one such type. A Coriolis flow meter is a form of mass flow meter that is used for measuring the mass of gases as well as liquids. The first Coriolis patents for industrial usage can be traced back to the 1950s although it was not until the 1970s that the first Coriolis mass flow meters originated. It has a different design from differential or thermal mass flow meters, and works in a different manner as well.

How Does a Coriolis Flow Meter Work?

This type of sensor uses inertia to make a measurement of mass. A dense gas or liquid flows through a tube that is vibrated with the help of a tiny actuator. The acceleration generates a twisting force on the tube that can be measured and happens to be proportional to the mass. Coriolis meters that are more advanced in form make use of two curved tubes for reduced drop in pressure and superior sensitivity.

Such a flowmeter needs a force that acts over a tube that transports a fluid. The force helps deform the tube, and how much deformation is achieved is directly based on the mass flow rate via the tubes. The signals emitted by the sensors that gauge the deformation offer a direct hint at the mass flowrate. The flowmeter, in a Coriolis meter that measures the rate of mass flow, needs to rotate the fluid. These oscillate the fluid in a rotational manner in practice, which generates equivalent Coriolis forces. The tubes may be straight, S-shaped or U-shaped in form.

Coriolis Flow Meter and Motion Mechanics

It has to be understood that this kind of sensor has motion mechanics as its underlying working principle. Once the process fluid gets into the sensor, it gets split. A drive coil, at the time of operations, makes the tubes oscillate as opposed to the direction of the natural resonant frequency. As the tubes start oscillating, the current voltage that is produced from every pickoff leads to a sine wave creation. It shows that one tube’s movement is relative to that of another. Delta-T is the name given to the delay in time between two sine waves, and it is proportional directly to the rate of mass flow.

These kinds of meters are mainly utilized in scientific applications, where these can measure clean as well as corrosive liquids and gases. These can also be seen in use in Wastewater handling, chemical processing, Oil and Petroleum and Paper and Pulp processing industries. Coriolis flow meters that have tubes with a straight design can be cleaned with greater ease, which makes them ideal for pharmaceutical industry as well as for food and beverage applications. These can also be seen in use in mining operations, as these can also deal with slurries. Thus, these types of meters have diverse applications.

What is air flow meter and how it works?

What is air flow meter ?

Air flow meter is a type of sensor that is designed for measuring the air that flows into the air intake of vehicles. The data or readings of this sensor aid the Engine Control Unit (ECU) is delivering the right combination of fuel and air to the engine. A faulty air flow meter can lead to power loss and rough idling problem. A classic instance of this type of meter is the one that is used in vehicles to gauge the amount of air entering its engine at any specific time. It is used for regulating the engine firing and to ensure smooth running of the car.

How Does an Air flow meter Work?

One can find air flow meters in varied settings, and these can include various features – based on the way these are meant to be used. The Hot wire and the Vane meter are two common air flow meter types that are used in automobiles. Find out how these work.

  1. Hot wire meter – These types of sensors function by heating up a thin wire that is directly hung inside an air intake system. The wire is cooled by the air that flows through it. The air also reduces its electrical resistance. The difference in resistance actually corresponds to an alteration in voltage signal that is transmitted back to the Engine Control Unit.
  2. Vane meter – This kind of sensor is mounted by direct projection of a spring-loaded paddle into the air intake of an engine. As compared to a hot wire sensor, the air that moves through the wire proportionally moves the paddle. Such a motion leads to variation in the voltage that is gauged and transmitted back to the Engine Control Unit.

Both kinds of air flow meters are electronic sensors of sensitive types. You have to use an electronic contact cleaner to clean these up once in a while, given that soiled air flow meters can reduce your gas mileage and consequently reduce your engine’s longevity.

How Do these Sensors Work Flawlessly?

Hot wire air flow meters come with an electrical element integrated in them, which can heat up as you kickstart your vehicle. In the course of time, the repeated cooling and heating slowly degrades the element. It may get dirty as well, due to the small dirt particles that stick to the hot element moving past the air filter. The air flow meter ultimately begins to provide the Engine Control Unit with improper readings.

In order to address this issue, most air flow meters today are linked to computer systems. Computers prove to be effectual in calculations and light up the indicator illuminants when needed. Once the flow gets lower or higher than normal, the systems flash the warning lights. The lights also get illuminate when the flow meter gets clogged or starts malfunctioning. In this way, a computer connection ensures smooth and effective functioning of air flow meter. Proper readings are sent to the ECU and operations can run in a smooth way.