What is Orifice Plate Flow Meter and how it works?

What is Orifice Plate Flow Meter ?

An Orifice Plate Flow Meter is the name given to a form of flow meter that is used for the measurement of the flow rate of Gas or Liquid, particularly steam, with the help of the principle of Differential Pressure Measurement. It is used primarily for strong applications, given that it is very cheap to buy and reputed for its durable construction. This type of meter is used commonly in steam, gas and clean liquid services. It can be availed for pipes of all sizes, although it is very economical for measuring flows in larger pipes. Many organizations also approve the use of this meter for custody transfer of gases and liquids. Find out how this meter works.

Orifice Meter – What is the Basic Working Principle?

It comprises of an Orifice plate that is its basic element. The bore of the plate can be made in numerous configurations, to deal with different types of flow measurement tasks. The flowing conditions have to be assessed to determine which the most appropriate configuration is for each type of measurement job.

Once this Orifice plate is put in a line, there is development of a differential pressure across the Orifice plate. It is a linear drop in pressure, which is directly proportional to the flow rate of the gas or liquid. Once there is placement of an orifice plate in a pipe that transports the fluid – the flow rate of which has to be measured – the orifice plate results in a drop in pressure that varies with the rate of flow. This reduction in pressure is measured with a differential pressure sensor. When it is adjusted finely, the drop in pressure can help measure the flow rate.

What Is Its Working Mechanism?

Once the fluid comes closer to the orifice, there is a slight rise in pressure and then an abrupt drop as the orifice gets passed by. It goes on dropping until it reaches the “vena contracta”. Gradually, it rises until at around 5 – 8 diameters in the downstream direction an optimal point of pressure is reached. The orifice pressure will be lower at this point as compared to the upstream pressure of the orifice.

As the fluid moves through the orifice, the drop in pressure is due to the higher velocity of the gas that passes through the orifice’ narrowed section. When there is reduction in velocity as the fluid gets out of the orifice, there is a rise in pressure and it finally goes back to its actual level. All the loss of pressure does not get recovered due to losses of turbulence and friction in the stream.

The drop in pressure across the orifice rises when there is an increase in the flow rate. No differential is there when no flow is there. The differential pressure happens to be directly proportional to the velocity square. Thus, it stands to reason that in case the other factors stay constant, the square of the flow rate can be directly proportional to the differential.

What is Venturi Flow Meter and how it works?

What is Venturi Flow Meter ?

A Venturi flow meter refers to a device that is used for the measurement of fluid discharge or flow rate via a pipe. This is a differential producing flow meter and is used for many purposes and in many areas. It is one of the commonest flow meters due to its reliability and simplicity of operations. It does not lead to abrupt restrictions in flow and does not include any moveable components. Thus, this meter is able to measure the flow rate of fluid with a minimal reduction in total pressure.

Working Principle

This mechanism of action of this type of flow meter makes use of Bernoulli’s equation, which states that there is a drop in pressure with a rise in velocity. The principle for this meter was developed for the first time in 1797 by G.B, Venturi although it was not until 1887 with C. Herschel that the principle began to be considered.

According to this principle when there is a decrease in the cross-sectional area of the fluid’s flow, a difference in pressure is developed between the various areas of the flow. This aids in measuring the pressure difference. With the aid of this difference in pressure, the discharge in flow can be measured easily. Bernoulli’s principle mentions that the potential energy of the fluid reduces with a rise in fluid velocity. Reducing the pressure of fluid in those areas where there is higher flow velocity is referred to as Bernoulli Effect.

How Does the Venturi Flow Meter Work?

It has a basic style of working. The flow meter actually operates on the Bernoulli principle – that states that pressure drops when there is a rise in velocity. The same principle is made use of here. The throat’s cross section happens to be smaller as compared to the inlet pipe’s cross-section area. Due to this reason, the flow velocity at the throat area is higher than the inlet section. It occurs as per the continuity equation.

The rise in flow velocity at the throat will lead to reduced pressure at the section. Due to this reason, there is a difference of pressure between the venturimeter throat and the inlet. This variation in pressure can be measured with ease by making use of a differential manometer between the throat and the inlet area or through the use of two isolated gauges at throat and inlet. When you measure the varied pressure at the two varied sections, you can easily calculate or measure the rate of flow through the pipe.

It is important to note that one can install a Venturi flow meter at varied locations inside a pressure reducing flow system. Each of these locations has its own pros and cons. You can set it up as the inlet component to a flow system. Such an arrangement is frequently used as a calibration standard for a Constant Volume System (CVS) flow stand during emissions testing. The Venturi flow meters that are used in such applications are called Smooth Approach Orifices or SAOs.

What is Vortex Flow Meter and how it works?

What is Vortex Flow Meter?

The term “Vortex Flow Meter” refers to a device that is used for measuring flow in those situations where problems are created when moveable components are introduced. These are available in the form of plastic, brass or other industrial level construction. There is low sensitivity to differences in the process conditions. As these have no moving components, there is comparatively reduced wear and tear when compared to flow meters of other types. These types of meters are used to measure the flow of gas and liquid, as well as of steam.

What is the Principle of Operation?

These types of flow meters use a principle known as the von Kármán effect. As per this precept, while moving by a bluff body vortices will be generated alternately by flow. A bluff body consists of a flat, broad front. The bluff body, in a vortex meter, is a strip of material having such a front that vertically projects into the flow stream. The velocity of the flow is directly proportional to the vortices’ frequency. The flow rate is calculated through multiplication of the flow velocity to the pipe area.

Vortex meters, in a few cases, need straight upstream piping or straightening vanes to be used in order to eliminate the distortion of swirl and flow patterns. For these types of meters, low flow rates happen to be an issue, as these irregularly produce vortices when the flow is low. The meters’ accuracy ranges medium – high, based on the manufacturer and model.

How Does It Work?

The vortex flow meter has to work properly, and for that it has to be fixed in the proper direction. This is known as the ‘Shedding Principle’ in Physics, and it requires that the meter has to be placed in the flow direction.

There has to be pressure so that the Vortex flow meter can function properly. It makes it more convenient for the fluid to go downstream, as the case is while dealing with matter that flows down rivers. The meter will cease to function and will remain static in case of no direction or pressure. It is essential to know about proper frequencies that are adjusted in order to make the meter function properly. For the process to begin, you will notice that the vortices’ frequencies are generally placed in a direction that is directly proportional to the meter’s flow.

If the Vortex flow meter has to easily operate, it is recommended that you purchase strong materials give that it will determine the direction and pressure of the meter. You will notice that the whole flow will not be channeled by broken pipes, and this will lead to issues with the pressure. It is important to pick thermoplastic piping solutions, as these have appropriate pressure, the right temperature of accurate flow of direction and the media of flow. You have to also check more while dealing with matters related to corrosion and chemical transportation, given that these are obstructions in the ability of the flow to get a direction.

What is Water flow meter and how it works?

What is Water flow meter

A water flow meter is nothing but a device that can measure how much water is flowing through a pipe. Various types of water flow meters are available for you to choose from, based on the maintenance requirements, budget and water measurement applications. Each kind of water flow meter has a singular operational principle, individual application advantages and overall ownership cost. Find out about how the different types of water flow meters work.

Mechanical Flow Meters

These are the commonest and most affordable form of water flow meter that measures flow via rotation of turbine with a paddle wheel, propeller or shunt design. These meters operate by measuring how fast water flows through a pipe that makes a turbine or piston rotate. The blades’ rotational speed is proportional to the volumetric flow rate of water.

Vortex Flow Meters

These make use of vortices that are shed from a sensor that is absorbed in the flow. Vortices are actually swirls that are generated when a fluid goes past an impediment, such as water that flows around a stone or a wind moves past a flagpole. A sensor tab, in this type of meter, flexes sideways when every vortex tends to flow past and lead to a frequency output which is proportional directly to the volumetric flow rate.

Ultrasonic Flow Meter

These can measure the pace of fluid moving through the pipe and making volumetric flow measurement with the help of ultrasound. An ultrasonic signal is transmitted in a transit-time styled meter like this in the direction of the fluid flowing upstream, and another signal that is sent against the fluid flowing upstream. In its simplest form, the time taken by the sonic pulse to move downstream is compared with the time that the pulse takes to move upstream. The speed of the flowing fluid is measured with the help of this differential time. The meter then calculates the pipe’s volumetric flow rate with this fluid velocity.

Magnetic Flow Meter

These kinds of meters can measure the pace of fluid moving through a pipe with the help of a magnetic field that is used for volumetric flow measurement. The working of these meters is based on Law of Electromagnetic Induction of Faraday, which states that voltage is generated by liquid while passing through a magnetic field. The faster the flow of fluid is, the higher the voltage that is produced. The voltage that is generated is directly proportional to the movement o water. The electronics processes the voltage signal into the volumetric flow rate. However, these kinds of meters never exhibit an intermediate accuracy which makes them improper to be used for custody transfer.

Which kind of water flow meter should be used is based on the particular application. For example, some types of flow meters perform better while measuring various things. You need to watch videos, go through white papers and make use of selection tools for detecting which is the best Sierra flow measurement product for water and liquid flow application.

What is Turbine Flow Meter and How It Works?

What is Turbine Flow Meter?

Turbine flow meters are a great way to measure the flow of natural gas and liquid. It is also referred to as an ‘Axial turbine’, and comprises of a turbine wheel put in the flow stream. The angled blades of the meter are pushed by the flow, which causes the rotation of the turbine. The flow rate can be gauged on the basis of the rate of rotation of the turbine when it gets steady. The rotation rate is generally picked up by the electronic coils which are connected to the housing of the meter, and finally transformed into readings that are obtained by users.

How Does It Work?

The meter comprises of a multi-bladed rotor that is mounted at an angle of 90° to the flow. It is suspended on a freely running bearing in the stream of the flow. The rotor’s diameter is a little less as compared to the metering chamber’s inner diameter, and the rotational speed is directly proportional to its volumetric rate of flow.

The rotor rotates as the fluid flows through the turbine meter. In case the impact of friction is not given importance, the rotor of the turbine will revolve at a speed that is proportional directly to the flowing fluid’s velocity.

There is an electrical pickup of the turbine meter, which can detect the rotor’s rotation and then changes the turbine rotor’s speed into pulses. The volume is proportional to the exact number of such pulses and the flow rate is also proportional to the pulse frequency.

How Do Various Turbine Flow Meters Work?

  • Single Jet – These have a set of blades that are directly set in the way of a jet or stream of water in a pipe. The jet or stream is created with the help of an orifice.
  • Multi-jet – These have the same working principle as the above flow meters. Water is directed onto blades from multiple orifices, in order to ensure their rotation around an axis in the middle. Both single jet and multi jet meters are used primarily for the purpose of billing in commercial and residential water supply operations.
  • Pelton Wheel – These have buckets connected to the outer side of the wheel. The wheel begins to rotate when liquid or waters hits the buckets. The setup of these flow meters is similar although in a frame that is more compact. It is used for the measurement of the flow of liquids of low viscosity that happen to flow at a slow rate.
  • Paddle Wheel – These consist of shafts positioned at an angle of 90° to the stream flow. It has a lightweight paddle wheel with shafts attached to it. As the shafts are moved by the flow, the wheel rotates. The paddle wheel rotational speed is proportional to the liquid flow speed.
  • Propeller – These types of flowmeters have 3 – 6 blades and are similar in appearance to wood propellers that can be found in boats. These have blades fixed around an axis in the middle, which rotate around the axis.

What is Coriolis Flow Meter and how it works?

What is Coriolis Flow Meter?

These days, most of the flow meters that are used happen to be volumetric. But a mass flow meter is needed in a few other applications, and a Coriolis flow meter is one such type. A Coriolis flow meter is a form of mass flow meter that is used for measuring the mass of gases as well as liquids. The first Coriolis patents for industrial usage can be traced back to the 1950s although it was not until the 1970s that the first Coriolis mass flow meters originated. It has a different design from differential or thermal mass flow meters, and works in a different manner as well.

How Does a Coriolis Flow Meter Work?

This type of sensor uses inertia to make a measurement of mass. A dense gas or liquid flows through a tube that is vibrated with the help of a tiny actuator. The acceleration generates a twisting force on the tube that can be measured and happens to be proportional to the mass. Coriolis meters that are more advanced in form make use of two curved tubes for reduced drop in pressure and superior sensitivity.

Such a flowmeter needs a force that acts over a tube that transports a fluid. The force helps deform the tube, and how much deformation is achieved is directly based on the mass flow rate via the tubes. The signals emitted by the sensors that gauge the deformation offer a direct hint at the mass flowrate. The flowmeter, in a Coriolis meter that measures the rate of mass flow, needs to rotate the fluid. These oscillate the fluid in a rotational manner in practice, which generates equivalent Coriolis forces. The tubes may be straight, S-shaped or U-shaped in form.

Coriolis Flow Meter and Motion Mechanics

It has to be understood that this kind of sensor has motion mechanics as its underlying working principle. Once the process fluid gets into the sensor, it gets split. A drive coil, at the time of operations, makes the tubes oscillate as opposed to the direction of the natural resonant frequency. As the tubes start oscillating, the current voltage that is produced from every pickoff leads to a sine wave creation. It shows that one tube’s movement is relative to that of another. Delta-T is the name given to the delay in time between two sine waves, and it is proportional directly to the rate of mass flow.

These kinds of meters are mainly utilized in scientific applications, where these can measure clean as well as corrosive liquids and gases. These can also be seen in use in Wastewater handling, chemical processing, Oil and Petroleum and Paper and Pulp processing industries. Coriolis flow meters that have tubes with a straight design can be cleaned with greater ease, which makes them ideal for pharmaceutical industry as well as for food and beverage applications. These can also be seen in use in mining operations, as these can also deal with slurries. Thus, these types of meters have diverse applications.

What is air flow meter and how it works?

What is air flow meter ?

Air flow meter is a type of sensor that is designed for measuring the air that flows into the air intake of vehicles. The data or readings of this sensor aid the Engine Control Unit (ECU) is delivering the right combination of fuel and air to the engine. A faulty air flow meter can lead to power loss and rough idling problem. A classic instance of this type of meter is the one that is used in vehicles to gauge the amount of air entering its engine at any specific time. It is used for regulating the engine firing and to ensure smooth running of the car.

How Does an Air flow meter Work?

One can find air flow meters in varied settings, and these can include various features – based on the way these are meant to be used. The Hot wire and the Vane meter are two common air flow meter types that are used in automobiles. Find out how these work.

  1. Hot wire meter – These types of sensors function by heating up a thin wire that is directly hung inside an air intake system. The wire is cooled by the air that flows through it. The air also reduces its electrical resistance. The difference in resistance actually corresponds to an alteration in voltage signal that is transmitted back to the Engine Control Unit.
  2. Vane meter – This kind of sensor is mounted by direct projection of a spring-loaded paddle into the air intake of an engine. As compared to a hot wire sensor, the air that moves through the wire proportionally moves the paddle. Such a motion leads to variation in the voltage that is gauged and transmitted back to the Engine Control Unit.

Both kinds of air flow meters are electronic sensors of sensitive types. You have to use an electronic contact cleaner to clean these up once in a while, given that soiled air flow meters can reduce your gas mileage and consequently reduce your engine’s longevity.

How Do these Sensors Work Flawlessly?

Hot wire air flow meters come with an electrical element integrated in them, which can heat up as you kickstart your vehicle. In the course of time, the repeated cooling and heating slowly degrades the element. It may get dirty as well, due to the small dirt particles that stick to the hot element moving past the air filter. The air flow meter ultimately begins to provide the Engine Control Unit with improper readings.

In order to address this issue, most air flow meters today are linked to computer systems. Computers prove to be effectual in calculations and light up the indicator illuminants when needed. Once the flow gets lower or higher than normal, the systems flash the warning lights. The lights also get illuminate when the flow meter gets clogged or starts malfunctioning. In this way, a computer connection ensures smooth and effective functioning of air flow meter. Proper readings are sent to the ECU and operations can run in a smooth way.

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Measurement of Liquid Flow in Remote Locations with Portable Flow Meters

Portable flow meters are an instrument which is used for the measurement of nonlinear, linear, volumetric and mass flow rate of a gas or liquid. They can be used in various situations, such as industrial or domestic depending on what you are looking for. You can use portable flow meters for measuring liquid flow in remote areas as well.

When choosing a flow meter, you need to consider the intangible factors such as maintenance, plant experience with calibration, location and more. The cost of the installation should also be taken into account along with the failure history, and spare parts availability. Remote locations require more care as spare parts and other things should be easily available as failure to take quick actions could result in slow down or even shut down of the plant altogether.

Never make the mistake of justifying the use of a device just because it is less expensive. Such devices could lead to costly installations or maintenance. This post will help you choose portable flow meters for the measurement of liquid flow in remote locations.

Fluid and Flow Characteristics

When looking for portable flow meters, there are certain characteristics which need to be taken into account such as the fluid and its flow characteristics vapor pressure, viscosity, conductivity, density, allowable pressure drop, temperature, pressure and other things. The interaction of these characteristics also needs to be taken into account. The safety and toxicity information as well as the condition of the gas or liquid has to be given along with the presence of bubbles, fluid composition and others.

Pressure & Temperature Ranges

Secondly, the expected maximum temperature and pressure value has to be given when selecting the portable flow meter for a remote location. Whether it would fill the pipe, the flow would reverse, if pulsation or aeration is likely and whether slug flow could develop should be known beforehand. These precautions would help with the maintenance as well.

Piping and Installation Area

The piping and installation area has to be considered as well. Portable flow meters are installed in various types of terrain and areas. Therefore, it is important to know which type of terrain the piping is so as to ensure that the installation process is successful.

Flow rates and Accuracy

Next, you need to determine the required meter range of the maximum and minimum flows that would need to be measured. It will help with the flow measurement accuracy to be determined. The accuracy requirements need to be stated separately at maximum, minimum and normal flow rates.

Conclusion

In view of these considerations, portable flow meters, which are insensitive to viscosity, pressure and density variations would not be affected. Make sure to get high-quality portable flow meters for a remote location to ensure that the measurement of the liquid flow is accurate and safe. It can be difficult to maintain a portable flow meter in remote locations. Therefore, make sure to get one which is durable.

WSL906 radar level meter for hygienic liquid storage, corrosive container

Ultrasonic Level Sensor VS Radar Level Sensor

From Time to time, level management is needed for water and wastewater plants. The limit-level needs to be effectively detected to ensure safety, process engineering and water management. Controlling and monitoring the water level helps optimize operations such as control, cost calculation, treatment processes and fluid flow.

There are different types of technology which are needed for performing certain tasks depending on the environmental and material conditions. Installation options are to be taken into account when selecting which technology to use. Where cost is not a major issue, multiple technologies can be used. However, selecting the best technology for each application is important.

Ultrasonic Level Sensors & Radar Level Sensors

Ultrasonic level sensors are used for wastewater plants and they are more effective as compared to radar level sensors. The radar level sensors have most been used for level measurements and it is due to this reason that they have become popular. Although, the radar level technology has been used for its performance and accuracy for a long time, it isn’t as viable when it comes to wastewater management. The ultrasonic level meter has many applicable specific benefits and it more cost effective. This post will provide readers with a detailed comparison between ultrasonic level sensors and radar level sensors so as to enable them to know which sensor would be more effective in certain situations.

Ultrasonic Level Sensors

Ultrasonic level sensors are used for situations where there is a continuous level of measurement that is needed. They employ piezo crystals which produce mechanical pulses created from the sensor membrane. The sound wave would reflect from the surface due to the change in the medium and air density. The sensor membrane will receive reflected pulses within time which is similar to the distance in medium surface and the sensor membrane. The instrument can provide the level by simply subtracting the distance from the calibration distance that is empty as the empty calibration distance has been programmed when the sensor is commissioned.

A pulse would then be submitted to the surface of the solid or liquid to help determine the level of the tank. The flight time would also be measured which is reflected for the signal. As a medium of transmission, the ultrasonic pulse needs air. It operates with relation to the speed of the sound in the air. Hence, it cannot be used on a vacuum for level measurement. Large measurement errors in a different sound would be the result if there are gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen in the surface or the air.

Radar Level Sensor

The radar works according to a similar principle as ultrasonic level of time flight. The difference is that the radar produces high-frequency microwaves from the antenna. The microwaves operate according to changes in the dielectric constant of the process medium as compared to sound waves that reflect according to density. The microwaves don’t require air as a transmitter as they are electromagnetic. Hence, the radar level sensor can be used in the presence of other gasses or in a vacuum.

Insertion type ultrasonic flow meter for Australia, Canada, UK market

Ultrasonic Flow Meter – the best choice For Measuring Fluid Flows

There is a reason why the ultrasonic flow meter is the best choice. There are different industries which work with various types of fluids. The fluids are of different masses and densities. In order to make use of them, they need to be transported from one place to another. Proper fluid flow is vital for the fluids to be valuable. The gas or liquid would be sent at a lower quantity if there isn’t proper flow. This affects production significantly and could even lead to breakdown in production in the worst case scenario.

It is due to this reason that it is important to check the flow of the fluids that are being transported so as to ensure that the flow is proper. There should be the perfect flow and nothing more, nor less. This is where the ultrasonic meter comes into place. It is a special kind of meter. The ultrasonic meter allows for the accurate and exact calculations to be made within a short amount of time. Hence, it has become widely popular in various industries.

Why is the Ultrasonic Flow Meter the Best?

The ultrasonic flow meter is the best because it uses the latest technology to calculate accurate and exact meter flow. It does this be sending the sound waves from one pipe to another through which the fluids are received and sent. The echo would determine from inside the pipe, the flow of the fluid. Therefore, anyone looking for the best results should use the ultrasonic flow meter.

Flow Meter & Other Popular Options

The vortex one is a different type of digital water meter. It has been designed for the measurement of the flow of water in the form of steam through the pipes. The steam would be at extreme temperatures and sent at a high pressure. In such situations, it is the vortex meter which is able to perform the task unlike other meters out there.

Doppler Effect

The Doppler Effect also comes to use in some meters. Fluids that have a large number of heavy particles can use such meters. The flow rate would be found by the Doppler shift of the fluid. However, such meters are less effective as compared to others. The meter could be used through fixing it in various ways.

Clamp on Flow Meter

The clamp on flow meter is something that most people want. This type of meter is extremely useful. It would be installed just beside the pipelines in which the flow is required to be measured. Damages are common among other types as they would need to be installed inside of the pipes. Less maintenance is needed by the clamped meters and they are very durable. The combination of ultrasonic flow meter and clamping set up is the best meter out there. When judging the digital water meter, one must think about the needs so as to ascertain which type of meter would work best for them.